Caesarean section in dogs

Exploring the topic of caesarean section in dogs - anaesthetic protocols, pharmacological and physiological changes, risk factors, and neonatal survival rates.

puppiesEthical guidance

British Veterinary Association - Conformational changes and caesareans: reporting to the Kennel Club (last accessed 5/8/2015)

The Kennel Club - Caesarean operations and procedures which alter the natural conformation of a dog (last accessed 5/8/2015)

RCVS Code of Professional Conduct for Veterinary Surgeons - 14. Client confidentiality

14.4  Registration of a dog with the Kennel Club permits a veterinary surgeon who carries out a caesarean section on a bitch, or surgery to alter the natural conformation of a dog, to report this to the Kennel Club.


Selection of references

  • Heimendahl, A. von (2014) Emergency caesarean section in the canine patient. Companion, December, pp. 12-13
  • Metcalfe, S.  et al. (2014) Multicentre, randomised clinical trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of alfaxalone administered to bitches for induction of anaesthesia prior to caesarean section. Australian Veterinary Journal, 92(9), pp. 333-338
  • Max, A. and Jurka, P. (2013) Effectiveness of obstetric procedures in miniature dogs. Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy, 57(3), pp. 419-423
  • Goericke-Pesch, S. and Wehrend, A. (2012) New method for removing mucus from the upper respiratory tract of newborn puppies following caesarean section. Veterinary Record, 170(11), pp. 289
  • Lopate, C. (2010) Dystocia management in the bitch: medical vs. surgical intervention. Small animal and exotics. Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference, Orlando, Florida, USA, pp. 1423-1427
  • Evans, K.M. and Adams, V.J. (2010) Proportion of litters of purebred dogs born by caesarean section. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 51(2), pp. 113-118
  • Otero, P. (2009) Anaesthesia for caesarian secton: an evidenced based approach to choosing drugs. 34th World Small Animal Veterinary Association Congress, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 21-24 July
  • Bergstrom, al. (2006) Incidence and breed predilection for dystocia and risk factors for cesarean section in a Swedish population of insured dogs. Veterinary Surgery. 35(8) pp. 786-91
  • Luna, S.P.L.  et al. (2004) Effects of four anaesthetic protocols on the neurological and cardiorespiratory variables of puppies born by caesarean section. Veterinary Record, 154(13), pp. 387-389


More references on the topic are available to download from our 'Related documents' box.


Image: Newly born police puppies. This file is licenced under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic licence. Author: West Midlands Police from West Midlands, UK.